top of page

Lik-Hang Lee, PhD

AR/VR, Metaverse, Human-centered Smart Systems & Designs

Assistant Professor, ISE, Hong Kong Polytechnic University


1. Assistant Professor 
Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering (ISE)

The Hong Kong Polytechnic University

2. Adjunct Faculty (2023 - 2025)

Urban Governance and Design (UGOD)

The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (Guangzhou)


Contact Info: 

Address: Room FJ409, 4F Building Core F, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong.

E-mail: lik-hang (dot) lee (at) polyu (dot) edu (dot) hk


Other Profiles: 

Google Scholar


Interactive Homepage


Short Bio:

I am currently an assistant professor at the Hong Kong Polytechnic University [My resume]. Prior to my current position, I was an assistant professor (tenure-track) with the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), The Republic of Korea. My primary [research interests] are Augmented Reality (AR), Virtual Reality (VR), and Data-driven Methodologies or AI-enabled Applications in the Metaverse. Since 2016, I have co-authored no less than 70 conference and journal papers, as well as technical reports related to diversified types of virtual and immersive environments (i.e., AR/VR and the Metaverse) [List of publications]. My recent projects have covered broad-spectrum [topics], including AIGC (e.g., ChatGPT) systems in AR/VR, mobile AR/VR solutions, AR/VR facilitated intelligent objects (e.g., IoT and Robotics), and user privacy and safety in immersive cyberspace. In addition, I am serving as organizing committees, technical program committees/ program committees/ workshop organizers/ reviewers in well-recognized conferences and journals, such as ACM CHI, ACM IMWUT, ACM CSUR, ACM MobiSys IEEE PERCOM, IJCAI, AAAI, ICWSM, IEEE ISMAR, ACM Multimedia, and so on [Services]I am looking for motivated and outstanding candidates for Postgraduate studies (PhD and MPhil) and Postdoctoral Researchers to work on real-and-virtual combined environments and human-machine interactions generated by computer technology and wearables, and other emerging virtual environments in the immersive Internet (also known as the Metaverse). Here is a list of students I supervised or co-supervised [List of students].

Recruiting Postdoc, PhD and M.S. students (batch Jan 2025, May 2025, Sept 2025). Please send your application materials to my email address. The application materials include CVs, transcripts, representative papers or manuscripts, and personal biography. Among other things, the bio should describe, in addition to personal experience (at least 1 of the following): programming skills and AR/VR experiences, mathematical or AIGC modelling skills, LLM Agent, data analytics for blockchain applications (in as much detail as possible), how to share knowledge and skills, why you want to do graduate school (what motivates you for spending years on a problem), why you chose my research group, future career plans, and your most significant personal strengths and weaknesses.

News (Interactive version):​​​​​

  • July 2024: We got a paper in CHI PLAY 2024

  • June 2024: We got a paper in ECCV 2024

  • May 2024: We have several openings for remote interns ( 6 --- 8 weeks). The student is expected to have a basic understanding of Unity or skills in developing GPT technologies. Please email me if you want to build the Metaverse and GPT-enabled technologies.

  • May 2024 We completed the delivery of a PG-level course, co-teach with Prof Eric Tsui (ISE5026, Spring Semester 2023 - 2024)

  • Apr 2024 We got a paper accepted in IEEE Trans. on Learning Tech. (TLT), regarding Dyslexia students learning Traditional Chinese

  • Mar 2024 We got a paper accepted in the International Journal of Human–Computer Interaction (Print ISSN: 1044-7318 Online ISSN: 1532-7590)

  • Feb 2024 We got a paper accepted in Education and Information Technologies 

  • Jan 2024 We got a paper accepted in ACM WebConf 2024 (WWW'24).

  • Jan 2024 We got a paper accepted in IEEE Virtual Reality 2024 (VR'24).

  • Jan 2024 I am going to (co-)teach ISE 5026 (Technology Innovation and Entrepreneurship in Practice) with Prof Eric Tsui at PolyU HK for the Spring Semester

  • Dec 2023 We completed the delivery of a UG-level course (ISE 3002, Fall Semester 2023 - 2024)

  • Dec 2023 We got a paper accepted in IEEE VR 2024, regarding the jump-cut effect in virtual reality

  • Dec 2023 We got a paper accepted in Virtual Reality (Springer, Print ISN: 1359-4338), offering design cues for interview practising in virtual reality

  • Nov 2023 We got a grant to promote data literacy at the university.

  • Nov 2023 We presented our papers at ACM Multimedia 2023 [paper 1] [paper 2]

  • Nov 2023 We got a paper accepted in AAAI ICWSM, analyzing the digital natives' opinions in the conflict between Ukraine and Russia

  • Oct 2023 We got a paper in ACM Comp. Survey. (CSUR), regarding empathy and spatial environments in the metaverse era [link]

  • Oct 2023 We have two book chapters appeared in the book entitled "Metaverse Communication and Computing Networks: Applications, Technologies, and Approaches," John Wiley & Sons [link]

  • Oct 2023 Our paper received Best Paper Honorable Mention at the 16th International Symposium on Visual Information Communication and Interaction (VINCI 2023).

  • Sept 2023 We got a paper in MindTrek 2023, regarding empathy building in a metaverse campus

  • Sept 2023 Our 136-page comprehensive report regarding UK metaverse development has been announced [link

  • Sept 2023 I am going to teach ISE 3002 (Planning of Production and Service Systems) in the fall semester 2023

  • Aug 2023 We organized and delivered a full-day workshop at ISE PolyU Hong Kong, in which a batch of secondary school students learned about metaverse, related applications and techniques for building virtual worlds

  • Aug 2023 We got two papers accepted in the ACM Multimedia 2023, regarding meditation and cinematography 

  • Aug 2023 We got a paper accepted in VINCI'23, and the topic is chemistry hazard learning

  • Aug 2023 A STEAM student earned the award of "十大傑出少年" [photo], awarded by HK Chief Executive's Wife Janet Lee Lam Lai-sim

  • Aug 2023 I got two publicity regarding the secondary school's national innovation awards "Invention Convention China" [link 1], resulting in 8 awards from 1,400 elite projects (3,000+ students) selected from all provinces of China [link 2]

  • Jul 2023 I delivered a talk at Heng Seng University, Hong Kong, regarding the metaverse technology and use cases of transmedia

  • Jul 2023 We successfully made the ACM Mobisys 2023, and I served on an organizing committee.

  • Jul 2023 We released one technical report regarding Segment Anything Model named "A Survey on Segment Anything Model (SAM): Vision Foundation Model Meets Prompt Engineering" [link]

  • Jul 2023 We released one qualitative study related to user perception of CHATGPT (GPT-4) on Weibo [link

  • Jun 2023 We got a workshop paper accepted in ACM MobiSys 2023, entitled "Players are not Ready 101: A Tutorial on Organising Mixed-mode Events in the Metaverse" , sharing our insight and experiences of organising virtual events on a global scale [link]

  • Jun 2023 We got a full paper accepted in ACM Hypertext 2023, reporting the usage of Airbnb, through an approach of Ghost Booking, as a New Philanthropy Channel, shown by a case study on the Ukraine-Russia conflict

  • Jun 2023 We released one complete survey regarding Generative AIs and architecture [link

  • May 2023 We released one article regarding the possibility when AIGC meets the Metaverse [link]

  • May 2023 We released one comprehensive survey regarding Generative AIs and 3D worlds [link]

  • Apr 2023 We released two survey articles regarding CHATGPT and AIGC

  • Mar 2023 I delivered a presentation: `My Journey as a Technopreneur' at  第三屆聯校「大灣區」創業工作坊 

  • Mar 2023 I shared my view regarding the latest Metaverse development at Cyberport's flagship event as a panel speaker [link].

  • Mar 2023 We got a paper in the International Journal of Human–Computer Interaction (IF=4.92), probing the Dark Side of Augmented Reality (AR) and Manipulative Designs in AR

  • Feb 2023 We got a paper in IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies (IF=4.43), regarding learning at home during the pandemic period.

  • Jan 2023 Our book chapter is online with Springer Handbook of Augmented Reality [link]

  • Jan 2023 Our paper is officially online @ ACM CSUR (IF = 14.32) -- Mobile Augmented Reality: User Interfaces, Frameworks, and Intelligence

  • Dec 2022 I decided to relocate to Hong Kong and will start a new faculty position at the Hong Kong Polytechnic University in 2023

  • Dec 2022 We delivered a UG-level Global Innovation Course (IE481, Fall'22) at KAIST

  • Dec 2022 We got a paper in IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies, regarding a Seven-Week Study of Chinese Character Learning in an Informal Learning Environment for Students with Dyslexia

  • Dec 2022 We got a paper in Int. Journal of Design Creativity and Innovation, and the work explored the relationship Between Culture and Experience of Creativity

  • Nov 2022 We got two paper awards in the Blue Sky Track at ACM ICMI 2022 [link]

  • Nov 2022 I delivered an introductory talk regarding the Metaverse to entrepreneurs and innovators from the Greater Bay Area of Southern China [Certificate]

  • Nov 2022 I delivered a half-day seminar regarding the Metaverse in cultural and creative industries to the leadership from the Province of Qinghai, China [teaching evaluation]

  • Nov 2022 I delivered a seminar with the HKGCC x Hong Kong Public Relations Professionals' Association, entitled `Building Your Brand in the Metaverse Workshop.' 

  • ​Nov 2022 I delivered an introductory talk to UG students at Lingnan University Hong Kong regarding the Metaverse. 

  • Oct 2022 I delivered a speech in Horizons of an XR Robotics Reality Workshop in IEEE IROS 2022 [link]

  • Oct 2022 I delivered a talk and participated in a panel discussion regarding Metaverse Education at Metaverse Asia Expo 2022 [link]

  • Oct 2022 I delivered a talk entitled `Digital Big Bang in the Metaverse Era' as a keynote speaker at an ISMAR 2022 workshop named Metaverse for Digital Commerce and Virtual Economy [link

  • Oct 2022 I participated in a panel discussion in the Web3 Carnival [link]

  • Oct 2022 I participated in a panel discussion in the TEXT2030 Workshop adjunct with ACM Mobile HCI [link]

  • Sept 2022 We got an article in IEEE Multimedia, regarding XR Operating System for the Metaverse [link]

  • Sept 2022 I shared my opinion about the metaverse readiness [article], interviewed by the Hong Kong Economic Journal

  • Sept 2022 We got a paper into ACM Asia Multimedia regarding a real-time human-avatar interaction framework

  • Sept 2022 We got two papers into ASONAM 2022 (Acceptance rate 19.6%) regarding (1) Anchor Store Effect based on Location-based Social Network; and, (2) Mental Health Communications with Instagram Coaches

  • Sept 2022 We got a paper about Meditation, Mindfulness and Virtual Reality in Chinese CHI 2022

  • Sept 2022 Our paper regarding AR frameworks [link] appears at ACM Computing Survey CSUR

  • Sept 2022 Our paper, regarding Federated Split GANs, was accepted into MobiCom 2022 Workshop (the 1st Workshop on Data Privacy and Federated Learning Technologies for Mobile Edge Network)

  • Aug 2022 I delivered a talk regarding XR and real EduTech Applications (A case of virtual-physical geography lesson), invited by the Association of Pacific Rim Universities (APRU) [Snapshot][Playback]

  • Aug 2022 I delivered a talk `When Education meets the Metaverse: an overview and challenges' at the Global Smart Education Conference [snapshot​]

  • Aug 2022 A metaverse project with Hong Kong Productivity Council, namely i4.0 Digital Lean in Metaverse for Virtualised Process Optimisation, got into the Finalists for the 2022 R&D 100 Awards (its 60th year) [snapshot][link]

  • Aug 2022 I delivered a talk regarding fundamental metaverse concepts & applications at Hong Kong Productivity Council

  • Aug 2022 A research collaboration project, namely MetaHKUST—i.e., a virtual-physical blended university [Snapshots], eventually goes `online' and gets publicity, listed selected news articles: [WenWeiPo][][orange news]

  • Aug 2022 We got two papers into ACM ICMI'22. In particular, one of the papers is related to Martian Metaverse

  • Aug 2022 We got a poster into ASSETS 2022

  • Jul 2022 I delivered a talk at The Hong Kong Federation of Youth Groups (HKFYG) - ``I&T elites teach you how to integrate the business into Metaverse"

  • Jul 2022 We got the best paper award at SocialMeta'22 [cert]

  • Jul 2022 I delivered a talk at Hong Kong Productivity Council (HKPC) - `When Digital Lean meets the Metaverse'

  • Jul 2022 I shared my opinion about metaverse interoperability, interviewed by Andrew Singer with Cointelegraph 

  • Jul 2022 We got one paper into ACM MM 2022

  • Jul 2022 We got one paper considering drone controller designs in VR, accepted by IEEE/RSJ IROS 2022

  • Jun 2022 We delivered a PG-level Augmented Reality Course (KSE801, Spring'22) at KAIST

  • Jun 2022 A very first survey regarding metaverse education was accepted in Smart Learning Environments

  • Jun 2022 One paper was published at ACM Proc. HCI (EICS) 2022

  • Jun 2022 I delivered a seminar at KAIST The First Wednesday Multidisciplinary Forum (June): `Visualization of Virtual Entities in the Metaverse'

  • May 2022 Our Metaverse article and AR research were highlighted by HKUST's 30th anniversary featured articles

  • May 2022 I delivered a seminar at SUNY Korea: `Building User-centric immersive cities in the metaverse era'. 

  • Apr 2022 We delivered the first-ever professional Metaverse course (42 hours) to HKPC (Corporate Training) at KAIST

  • Apr 2022 Our paper investigating virtual reality brainstorming appeared in Digital Creativity

  • Apr 2022 We got one paper into ACM MMSys 2022

  • Apr 2022 I delivered an invited seminar at HKUST AI Thrust

  • Mar 2022 One paper was published at IEEE Haptics 2022

  • Mar 2022 Our research has been highlighted by KAIST Breakthroughs

  • Mar 2022 We successfully organized the 1st Metaverse Workshop, namely METABUILD, at IEEE VR'22

  • Mar 2022 I delivered a talk at Smart Learning Institute, Bejing Normal University: `Metaverse in Education (International Webinar Series)'

  • Feb 2022 We got one paper into IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing.

  • Feb 2022 We got one paper into IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transport Systems

  • Feb 2022 I delivered a seminar at HKBU: `Building User-centric immersive cities: Interactivity Bandwidth, Privacy, and Safety'.

  • Feb 2022 I delivered a seminar at HKPC: `The Masterplan of Constructing the Metaverse'

  • Jan 2022 I shared my view on the Metaverse and Play-to-earn games with Hindustan Times: `Level up: Tour the new battlegrounds of the gaming world'

  • Jan 2022 I delivered a seminar at USTC: `Immersive Human-City Interaction in the Metaverse Era'

  • Jan 2022 We got two papers into TheWebConf 2022

  • Jan 2022 We got one paper into Ubicomp 2022

  • Dec 2021 We delivered a UG-level Global Innovation Course (IE481, Fall'21) at KAIST

  • Nov 2021 I shared my view regarding Implementing `Metaverse Cities' with MingPao Hong Kong

  • Nov 2021 We delivered a talk at CUDAN Open Lab, University of Tallinn: `The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Metaverse'

  • Oct 2021 We released a comprehensive survey detailing our vision for the future metaverse

  • Sep 2021 Our paper at ACM MM 2021 was selected as one of `the Best Paper Candidates'

  • Aug 2021 We got two papers into ACM MM 2021

  • Jul 2021 We got one paper into ACM ICMI 2021

  • Jun 2021 Two papers were published at ACM Proc. HCI (EICS) 2021

  • May 2021 We got one paper into ACM Computing Surveys (CSUR)

  • Apr 2021 After joining KAIST, my research was first highlighted by the KAIST ISE Dept. Newsletter

  • Mar 2021 I delivered a talk regarding human-city interaction at KAIST ISE Colloquium 

  • Dec 2020 One paper was presented in AIS ICIS 2020

  • Sept 2020 I accepted the offer of Tenure-track Assistant Professor with the Dept. ISE at KAIST

  • Aug 2020 We got one paper into ACM ICMI 2020

  • Jun 2020 We got one paper into Ubicomp 2020

  • Apr 2020 We got one paper into Pervasive and Mobile Computing

  • Mar 2020 We got one paper into MMSys 2020

  • Dec 2019 We got one paper into Percom 2020

  • Nov 2019 I officially started as a Postdoctoral Researcher (5GEAR Project) at the University of Oulu

  • Aug 2019 We got one paper into Ubicomp 2019

  • Aug 2019 We got one paper into ISWC 2019

  • May 2019 Our AR-Driven Product had been tried by the 4th Hong Kong Chief Executive

  • Jan 2019 We got two papers into Percom 2019

  • Dec 2018 Our AR-Driven Product received the Hong Kong Awards for Industries: Innovation and Creativity.

  • May 2018 A survey on Interaction Method for Smartglasses appeared in IEEE ACCESS

  • Apr 2018 I delivered a talk regarding AR education at Internet Economy Summit (IES) 2018

  • Mar 2018 Our AR-Driven Product received two HKICT Awards under the categories of Smart Living (Silver) and ICT Software (Merit)

  • Feb 2017 Our Mobile AR research was highlighted by HKUST PG Newsletter

  • Jan 2017 Our research was reported in a featured article written by Hong Kong’s Information Services Dept.: `A new system for AR enthusiasts

  • Jan 2017 I got invited by to share my views on technology and R&D with the 3rd Hong Kong Chief Executive

  • Oct 2016 I served as a panel speaker at GMIC Hong Kong 2016 (Topics related to AI/5G/AR)

  • Sep 2016 Our research was highlighted by South China Morning Post: `Hong Kong Researchers laud bright future for augmented reality technology' and Wenweipao: `HKUST's platform for fast AR app development cycle shortening to one week'



  • ACM ICMI 2023 (Program Committee)

  • IEEE ISMAR 2023 (External Reviewers)

  • IJCAI-ECAI'23 (PC)

  • ACM IMWUT 2023 (Reviewer)

  • CHI 23 – Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (External Reviewers)

  • IEEE Percom 2023 (TPC)

  • ACM Multimedia 2022 (External Reviewers)

  • ACM ICMI 2022 (Program Committee)

  • IEEE ISMAR 2022 (External Reviewers)

  • ACM IMWUT 2022 (Reviewer)

  • International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction (ISSN: 1044-7318), Reviewers

  • ACM ICWSM'22 (External Reviewers)

  • Complexity, Hindawi, External Reviewer

  • IEEE Virtual Reality (VR) 2022 : Workshops (Co-chair and Organiser) (I) MetaBuild and (2)  Data4XR

  • Patterns, Cell Press (Reviewers)

  • New Techno-Humanities [ISSN: 2664-3294] (Reviewers)

  • CHI 22 – Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (External Reviewers)

  • AAAI 22 – the Thirty-Sixth AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence (PC)

  • KAIST HCI Initiative (Committee)

  • IJCAI-ECAI'22 (PC)

  • IEEE Percom 2022 (TPC)

  • PerFail 2022 –The 1st International Workshop on Negative Results in Pervasive Computing (TPC)

  • IEEE Network Magazine (Reviewers)

  • Virtual Reality [ISSN : 1359-4338], Reviewers

  • ACM CHI 2021 Workshop Organiser (2VT: Visions, Technologies, and Visions of Technologies for Understanding Human Scale Spaces)

  • Ubicomp 2021 Workshop MIMSVAI 2021 (TPC)

  • ACM ICMI 2021 (PC, the standard track and BlueSky track)

  • IJCAI 2021 (PC)

  • ACM IMWUT 2021 (Reviewer)

  • ACM Multimedia 2020 (Reviewers)

  • IJCAI 2021 – the 30th International Joint Conferences on Artificial Intelligence (PC)

  • PRICAI 2020 – the 17th Pacific Rim International Conference on Artificial Intelligence (PC)

  • IJCAI 2020 – the 29th International Joint Conferences on Artificial Intelligence (PC)

  • ACM MobileHCI 2020 – the 22nd International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services (Reviewers)

  • ICCCCN 2020 – the 29th International Conference on Computer Communications and Communication Networks​ (PC)

  • ECAI 2020 – the 24th European Conference on Artificial Intelligence (PC)

bottom of page